THIRTY-plus STRIKING FIGURES OF LUXURIA.
Luxuria has been wantonly mis-translated into English as
might better be translated as Lechery
the 'play-hard' mindset of bankers and billionaires,
the outrageous debaucheries of many mediæval prelates.
necessarily involves wealth, the amassing of which was, in Latin,
its most usual feminine form in stone Luxuria could also
1. Vézelay (Yonne)
Capital of the richly-decorated nave.
2. Ôo (Haute-Garonne)
Copy of bas-relief from the rustic parish church, now in the Musée des Augustins, Toulouse.
3a. l'Octogone, Montmorillon (Vienne)
3b. Mailhat (Puy-de-Dôme)
Two variations on the theme of entwining snakes..
4. The right-hand side of the Porta de la Gloria at Santiago de Compostela also shows Luxuria
with snakes coiling around her legs.
5. At Sangüesa (Navarra) she holds one of her breasts and accompanies the damned into Hell - symbolised by the grinning, toothy monster below.
6. Church of Saint-Hilaire, Melle (Deux-Sèvres): a very eroded figure with hands clasped in prayer between two suckling snakes.
photo by Tina Negus
7. Väte (Gotland), Sweden: this figure suckles two large snakes,
while a toad and an asp are looking for nipples in her armpits: the sign of a witch.
This is truly a 'Witch on the Wall'.
photo by Kjartan Hauglid
...while a toad also tries to insert itself into her vagina.
She grips her palms in pain and horror, while her face contorts in the agony of the damned.
Stylistically related are these fragments at Beaulieu-sur-Dordogne
(Corrèze), photographed by Adrian
The rich man is being ridden into Hell by a devil.
The figure on the left may be Gluttony, having 'licked the platter clean'.
9. Guitinières (Charente-Maritime): Here monsters are pulling
the woman's tresses,
while, on the other part of the double capital, stands an enigmatic beast biting (or spewing) tendrils.
10. At San Quirce (Burgos) handsome monsters bite her hands...
11...while at Châteaumeillant (Cher) Luxuria is represented by a splay-legged female exhibitionist who grasps two serpents
12. This figure at Villeneuve d'Aveyron (Aveyron) is in similar style,
but the snakes are sucking her breasts. I cannot interpret the threatening or warning ?ecclesiastic figure on the left.
He is not a horn-blower sounding the Last Trump.
13. At Castelviel (Gironde), Luxuria is, unusually, fully clothed - like Terra at the same period..
photo by Julianna Lees
14. Compare this example at Limalonges (Charente)...
...with a fourth-century bas-relief of Dionysus - from Egypt,
15. Bordeaux (Gironde), Sainte-Croix, archivolt of doorway
16. Bordeaux (Gironde), Sainte-Croix, the complete archivolt of the doorway.
17. Bouresse (Vienne): Luxuria, richly braided, sticks out her tongue as she dances.
On the right is a figure entwined by snakes.
18. At Amboise (Indre-et-Loire) a richly-carved capital shows a female acrobat or jongleresse
and a ?male entwined with writhing snakes on either side of a seated or enthroned figure
flanked by a devil and a beast with snakes.
20. A rare tongue-sticking, mouth-pulling, Gorgon-like Luxuria on a cloister capital at Tarragona, Spain.
21. A corbel on the basilica of San Isidoro (León) emphasises
breasts in a rather baroque - and modern - way,
suggesting inspiration from representations of Terra.
22. A corbel on the church of Lomilla de Aguilar (Palencia), which,
like the broken corbel at Archingeay,
directly connects the motif of Luxuria with that of the Exhibitionist.
23. Parthenay-le-Vieux (Deux-Sèvres).
24. Vouvant (Vendée)
25. Osorno la Mayor (Palencia), Spain.
An example doubly unusual for being on a font
and for featuring a Centaur-Sagittarius as divine instrument of punishment.
Daniel in the Lions' den is also illustrated.
26. A font at Rebanal de las Llantas (Palencia)
Eve as Luxuria, with Adam.
This font also has a vielle-player and an evil procuress pushing a naked male by his buttocks towards a female.
27. Double Luxuria, possibly lesbian, at Arthous (Landes)
28. Sacra di San Michele, Val di Susa, (Italy)
29. Uncastillo (Zaragoza), Spain.
This sculpture of the highest quality shows a woman straddling
a man, grasping his beard,
while a (or The) serpent whispers encouragement in her ear.
Meanwhile another serpent bites the gentleman's balls.
It is very much a depiction of Luxuria, the debauchery of wealth (note the fine clothes).
See a remote and rustic exhibitionist interpretation of Luxuria in Ireland >
and interpretations and variations on the theme in rural Denmark >
Adultery and Luxury being punished in Hell
Herrad von Landsberg's 12th century manuscript.
A fourteenth century illustration of Luxuria/Avaritia in hell
(note that both are crowned)
with Luxuria/Vanitas about to join them.
(Bibliothèque nationale de France, Français 22913, detail of f.370r. Augustine, De Civitate Dei in the French translation of Raoul de Presles (Books XI-XXII). 1370-1380)
The most shocking depiction of Luxuria, however, depicts her without snakes >
while another shows her clothed and tormented 'only' by demons:
St-Papoul (Aude) capital attributed to 'The Master of Cabestany'.
Girona, the cloisters. The flames of Hell are licking the groin of the figure on the left.
In this 15th century Italian 'throwback', recently sold in London by Sothebys,
Luxuria (snakeless) is about to be devoured by a rather noble-looking lion instead of the terrible jaws of Hell.
Is this scrotal-exhibitionist male at Saint-Léonard-de-Noblat
(Haute-Vienne) indicating his anus with one hand
while touching his head with the other - or is a snake issuing from his anus up behind his head and over his shoulder ?
I wonder if the Latin word Luxuria derives
from Lux (light):
luxury as emancipation from living as a slave in the cellar,
or in a dark hovel in a Roman or Neapolitan slum...?
Bloxham (Oxfordshire), detail of chancel window.
Is this a reduced (disembodied) post-Romanesque Luxuria,
or a representation of the punishment of the sins of speech (blasphemy, calumny, etc.) ?
Found on the dreadful pinterest site, with no information.
Langogne (Lozère) : a delightful rustic capital featuring giant
and a little chair or prie-dieu.
MORE PHOTOS ON FLICKR >
Music, Luxury and a devil holding a sandglass - 16th century.
(Herzog August Bibliothek, Wolfenbüttel, Cod. Guelf. A Aug. 2°, detail of folio.347.
Septem missae solemnes cum notis musicis, 1520.)
By the Renaissance, the theme
of Luxury had advanced with the times,
become more detailed and at the same time secular,
with a cherub in attendance.
Death, the final boundary -
Engraving made by Sebald Beham after Barthel Beham.